[Click here to get the authors’ version at the Loughborough University institutional repository (subject to embargo policy)]
Reporting guidelines for running biomechanics and footwear studies
[2 Aug 22] The biomechanics of running and footwear has been studied widely, and the International Society of Biomechanics has published recommendations on the definitions and reporting standards. We the editors of the Sports Biomechanics journal outlined a series of considerations and recommendations to encourage opportunities for replication studies in this area of research.
Hébert-Losier K*, Dai B, Nunome H, Kong PW, Hobara H, Hsu WC, Bradshaw E, Fong DTP, Vanwanseele B (accepted). Reporting guidelines for running biomechanics and footwear studies using three-dimensional motion capture. Sports Biomechanics.
Single-leg-squat-and-hold (SLSH) test for ACL injury
[21 Jul 22] We compared 25 ACL-deficient participants with 18 healthy matched participants and developed a test to quantify the knee wobbling, which associated with the knee function. This can be used as a test for knee joint instability after ACL injury.
He X, Chow MCS, Qiu J, Fu SC, Mok KM, Ong MTY, Fong DTP, Yung PSH* (accepted). Knee wobbling during the single-leg-squat-and-hold test reflects dynamic knee instability in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Research in Sports Medicine.
Quadriceps function is impaired soon after ACL injury
[18 May 22] We compared 30 patients with ACL injury with 30 healthy controls, and found bilateral deficits in quadriceps strength, rate of torque development, and voluntary activation ratio early after the injury. These should be enhanced during pre-operation rehabilitation.
Qiu J, Jiang T, Ong MTY, He X, Choi CY, Fu SC, Fong DTP, Yung PSH* (accepted). Bilateral impairments of quadriceps neuromuscular function occur early after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Research in Sports Medicine.
Would practising racewalking on treadmill increase the risk of disqualification?
[10 Mar 22] We evaluated the performance of racewalking in 22 elite athletes. We found that while racewalking on treadmill would alter the gait patterns, it does not seem to increase the risk of disqualification, so practising racewalking on treadmill is practical.
Zhang X, Fong DTP, Zhang C, Song S, Wang Y, Sun W, Song Q* (accepted). Racewalking on a treadmill alters gait characteristics without increasing the risk of disqualification. European Journal of Sport Science.
What influenced the accuracy of the use of handheld laser pointers?
[7 Mar 22] We tested red and green laser points being used under bright and dark light at different distances, and found that using green laser pointer within 2m of distance yielded the best accuracy.
What have we learnt from ankle sprain case reports?
[25 Jan 22] We performed a review on 24 reported ankle sprain cases in the literature and found that the mean peak inversion was 67.5 degrees, and the inversion velocity ranged from 468 to 1752 deg/s. We also suggested what can be considered in future research in this direction.
Lysdal FG, Wang Y, Delahunt E, Gehring D, Kosik KB, Krosshaug T, Li Y, Mok KM, Pasanen K, Remus A, Terada M, Fong DTP* (2022). What have we learnt from quantitative case reports of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries and episodes of “giving-way” of the ankle joint, and what shall we further investigate? Sports Biomechanics, 21(4), 359-379.
Effect of high-volume injection to treat tendinopathy
[21 Jan 22] We conducted a randomised control trial trial to look at the effect of high-volume image guided injection to treat tendinopathy. We do not see superiority of its effect over control at 6-month follow up.
Barker-Davies RM*, Baker P, Watson J, Goodall D, Wheeler P, Nicol A, Fong DTP, Lewis MP, Bennett AN (2022). A double-blind randomised control trial of high-volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(4), 23259671221088326.
Protocol: Effects of Tai Chi on chronic ankle instability
[19 Jan 22] We have planned to conduct a randomised controlled trial to look at the effect of 12-week Tai Chi exercise on the neuromuscular function of people with chronic ankle instability.
Tang H, Mao M, Fong DTP, Song Q, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Zhang C, Wang J, Tian X, Sun W* (2022). Effects of Tai Chi on the neuromuscular function of the patients with functional ankle instability: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 23, 107.
Ankle and knee muscle co-contraction and pre-activation during Tai Chi
[15 Dec 21] We found greater ankle muscle co-contraction and lower knee muscle co-contraction and pre-activation during a brush-knee twist-step Tai Chi movement. We hope this finding can contribute towards the understanding of neuromuscular control mechanism for preventing falls.
Yu H, Wang J, Mao M, Song Q, Zhang C, Fong DTP, Sun W* (accepted). Muscle co-contraction and pre-activation in knee and ankle joint during a typical Tai Chi brush-knee twist-step. Research in Sports Medicine.
Patients with patellar tendinopathy squat with elevated knee abductions
[22 Oct 21] We found that patients with patellar tendinopathy demonstrated elevated knee abductions during squat, but the gait pattern was unaffected. We believed that the pain has caused the avoidance of hip external rotation strength, and therefore rehabilitation programmes should focus on knee stabilisation and hip muscle strengthening.
Houston AD, Fong DTP, Bennett AN, Walters V, Barker-Davies RM* (2021). Biomechanical differences between military patients with patellar tendinopathy and asymptomatic controls during single-leg squatting and gait – a statistical parametric mapping study. Clinical Biomechanics, 90, 105514.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching could improve knee function in older adults with knee osteoarthritis during stair ascending
[3 Oct 21] We recruited 36 older adults with knee osteoarthritis to ascent stairs and demonstrated that a 6-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercise could relieve pain, improve proprioception, and balance load distribution between medial and lateral compartments at the knee.
Shen P, Li L, Song Q, Sun W, Zhang C, Fong DTP, Mao D* (2022). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation improves symptoms among older adults with knee osteoarthritis during stair ascending – a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 101(8), 753-760.
Passive thigh muscle stiffness and activation are important for knee stability
[17 Sep 21] We tested 30 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and found inferior knee strength, quadriceps and hamstrings stiffness, and delayed activation during a landing task. We believe that in addition to muscle strength, the deficits in passive muscle stiffness and activation are important contributors to the poorer dynamic knee stability during a single leg hop landing task.
He X, Qiu J, Ho YC, Cao M, Leong HT, Fu SC, Ong MTY, Mok KM, Fong DTP, Yung PSH* (2022). Effects of deficits in the neuromuscular and mechanical properties of the quadriceps and hamstrings on single-leg hop performance and dynamic knee stability in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(1), 23259671211063893.
Ground coefficient of friction 0.50-0.80 should be used in futsal
[7 Sep 21] We compared the ankle joint biomechanics in performing sidestep cutting on different ground surface for futsal. By comparing the available ground friction and the ankle biomechanics, we recommended that a coefficient of friction of 0.50-0.80 should be adequate for futsal players for agility and the avoidance of slipping.
Frias Bocanegra J, Fong DTP* (2022). Playing surface traction influences movement strategies during a sidestep cutting task in futsal: implications for ankle performance and sprain injury risk. Sports Biomechanics, 21(4), 380-390.
Landing with an inverted ankle could incite ankle sprain
[8 Jul 21] We compared the ankle joint orientation at landing between injury and non-injury cases and believed that a 10-15 degree inverted ankle joint could incite ankle sprain injury. Ankle plantarflexion can be absent.
Mok KM, Ha SCW, Chan ZYS, Yung PSH, Fong DTP* (2021). An inverted ankle joint orientation at foot strike could incite ankle inversion sprain: Comparison between injured and non-injured cutting motions of a tennis player. The Foot, 48, 101853.
Our smart sock for measuring toe flexion works well within-day but not yet between-day
[21 Jun 21] We have developed a smart sock system for measuring the grip function of each individual toe simultaneously earlier, and we have demonstrated good within-day reliability but not between-day reliability. Further optimisation of the design is needed for long term hallux flexion measurement.
Kong PW, Pan JW, Fong DTP, Leow Y, Liu Y, Chan CC, Heng MLW* (2021). Within-day and between-day reliability of a FBG-based smart sock system for measuring active toe flexion displacement of the hallux. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 21(7), 2150057.
Exercise interventions but not prophylactic devices can help reduce peroneal reaction time
[10 Jun 21] Peroneal muscle reaction time is a key element contributing to lateral ankle sprain injury. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and concluded that the peroneal reaction time can be reduced by exercise interventions, but not prophylactic devices. Therefore, future research can focus on exercise interventions rather than prescribing external prophylactic devices.
Plangtaisong P, Shen W, Wheeler PC, Fong DTP* (2021). Effect of exercise interventions and prophylactic devices on reducing peroneal muscle reaction time by sudden ankle perturbation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine in Novel Technology and Devices, 11, 100082.
Interactive video games for improving postural control in older adults
[8 Jun 21] Interactive video games have been used in sports medicine and rehabilitation in recent years. We demonstrated its effect in improving postural control in pre-frail older adults. There is no changes on the risk of falls.
Alhasan H, Wheeler PC, Fong DTP* (2021). Application of interactive videogames as rehabilitation tools to improve postural control and risk of falls in pre-frail older adults. Cyborg and Bionic Systems, 2021, 9841342.
Female and line players in Japanese university handball are 1.5 times more prone to injuries
[20 May 21] Visiting PhD researcher Sonoko Mashimo, now Associate Professor at Osaka Electro-Communication University, reported that most injuries in Japanese university handball are ligamentous sprains and ruptures to the ankle. Female players are 1.5 times more prone to injuries when compared to males, and line players are also 1.5 times more prone to injuries when compared to wings.
Mashimo S*, Yoshida N, Moriwaki T, Takegami A, Suzuki K, Fong DTP, Myklebust G, Onishi S (2021). Injuries in Japanese university handball: a study among 1017 players. Research in Sports Medicine, 29(5), 475-485.
Peroneal muscle stimulation for correcting laterally deviated foot pressure
[14 May 21] We demonstrated that a 8-week treadmill training protocol with functional electrical stimulation on the peroneal muscles can reduce a lateral deviation of the centre of foot pressure, which is a risk factor of lateral ankle sprain. We hope that this can be an exercise intervention to prevent ankle sprain injury in sports.
Bamber ZA, Wheeler PC, Swain ID, Fong DTP* (2021). Effect of 8-week treadmill running with peroneal muscle functional electrical stimulation on laterally deviated centre of plantar pressure position and star excursion balance test performance. Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering, 8, 20556683211021526.
Fast Fourier transform and polynomial fitting to detect ankle sprain
[20 Apr 21] We presented a method to use 500Hz sampling tri-axial gyrometer in classifying simulated ankle sprain motions from non-sprain common sporting motions. The method has a pretty good accuracy as demonstrated by the 97% sensitivity and the 91% specificity when vertical jump-landing is not included, and thus can be used in sports with minimal jump-landing motion, such as tennis.
Fong DTP, Ko JKL, Yung PSH* (2021). Using fast Fourier transform and polynomial fitting on dorsal foot kinematics data to identify simulated ankle sprain motion from common sporting motions. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine in Biology, 21(4), 2150040.
Peroneal muscle stimulation for improving standing balance
[13 Apr 21] We demonstrated that functional electric stimulation of the peroneal muscles could be effective in improving single-leg and double-leg standing balance with eyes opened, and in double-leg stance with eyes closed.
Musculoskeletal injuries in runners
[3 Feb 21] We conducted a review and found that the knee and the ankle are the most commonly injured body sites in runners, with most injuries being ankle sprains, Achilles tendinopathy, medial tibial stress syndrome, anterior compartment syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Ankle sprain in lateral backward step in badminton
[12 Jan 21] A forefoot landing posture with a plantarflexed and internally rotated ankle joint configuration could incite an ankle sprain. This is common in badminton when the athletes perform a combined lateral and backward step.
Fong DTP*, Mok KM, Thompson IM, Wang Y, Shan W, King MA (accepted). A lateral ankle sprain during a lateral backward stepping in badminton: a case report of a televised injury incident. Journal of Sport and Health Science.
Novel technology in sports biomechanics: some words of caution
[23 Dec 20] We the editors of Sports Biomechanics Journal addressed some of the novel technologies being increasingly utilised within sports biomechanics, and highlighted key factors to be considered in best practice.
Delayed peroneal muscle reaction found in later minutes in each half in football
[18 Dec 20] We reported delayed peroneal muscle reaction after 30 mins of the first half and 15 mins of the second half of a football match. Injury prevention should focus on these specific durations.
Obituary: Nicholas P. Linthorne, BSc, PhD (1963 – 2020)
[7 Dec 20] Shocked and saddened to announce that Dr Nicholas Linthorne has passed away on 26th Oct 2020. Nick has been a prominent biomechanist in the UK and also a very professional and helpful reviewer and member in the editorial board for the Sports Biomechanics journal.
Peroneal muscle reaction time significant increased during prolonged football protocol
[25 Nov 20] We found that peroneal reaction time would increase during prolonged football exercise. This may explain more injuries in the later time in football matches.
Huang Z, Shan W, Ding J, Sun W, Fong DTP* (2021). Peroneal reaction time delayed but dynamic single-legged stability retained in collegiate footballers during a simulated prolonged football protocol. Research in Sports Medicine, 29(6), 557-570.
A method to predict laterally deviated plantar pressure
[25 Nov 20] We have developed a clinical method to predict laterally deviated plantar pressure, a possible risk factor of lateral ankle sprain injury.
Bamber ZA, Wheeler P, He X, Ling SKK, Yung PSH, Fong DTP* (2021). Screening for laterally deviated plantar pressure during stance using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool and anthropometric measures. Research in Sports Medicine, 29(4), 323-335.
Is there a threshold of in-shoe pressure for detecting and prevention ulceration in patients with diabetes?
[20 Nov 20] We have reviewed the in-shoe pressure threshold for people with diabetes-related foot ulcerations.
Jones P*, Davies MJ, Khunti K, Fong DTP, Webb D (2021). In-shoe pressure threshold for people with diabetes and neuropathy at risk of ulceration: a systematic review. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 35(3), 107815.
Stretching devices can help increase knee joint range of motion in patients with arthrofibrosis
[10 Nov 20] We conducted a review and suggested that load-control and displacement-control home stretching devices are both effective in increasing knee joint range of motion for patients with knee arthrofibrosis, and the displacement-control device may be more appropriate for home use as they require less treatment time and limited or no physiotherapy treatment.
Aspinall SK, Bamber ZA, Hignett SM, Godsiff SP, Wheeler PC, Fong DTP* (2021). Medical stretching devices are effective in the treatment of knee arthrofibrosis: a systematic review. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 27, 119-131.
Interactive videogames for postural control and fall prevention?
[25 Oct 20] We did a review and concluded that interactive videogames can enhance postural control but not the outcome of falls.
Alhasan H*, Alshehri M, Wheeler PC, Fong DTP (2021). Effect of interactive videogames on postural control and risk of fall outcomes in frail and pre-frail older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Games for Health Journal, 10(2), 83-94.
FBG and load cell are reliable for measuring big toe stiffness
[2 Sep 20] We presented a method to use Fibre Bragg Grating sensor and load cell to measure hallux stiffness before, and further demonstrated its practical reliability.
Leow Y, Kong PW, Liu Y, Pan JW, Fong DTP, Chan CC, Heng ML* (2020). Test-retest reliability of a clinical foot assessment device for measuring first metatarsophalangeal joint quasi-stiffness. The Foot, 45, 101742.
Using motion sensor to detect ankle sprain
[1 Sep 20] We presented a method to use a motion sensor to detect ankle twisting motion and the hazard of ankle sprain.
Insert with medial arch support can reduce peak heel impact in running
[6 Aug 20] We showed that individually moulded insole can reduce peak impact and loading in prolonged running.
Fong DTP, Lue KBK, Chung MML, Chu VWS, Yung PSH* (2020). An individually moulded insole with 5-mm medial arch support reduces peak impact and loading at the heel after a one-hour treadmill run. Gait and Posture, 82, 90-95.
STAK tool for improving knee range of motion
[1 Aug 20] We developed a medical stretching device for self-treating knee arthrofibrosis and poor range of movement.
Aspinall SK*, Wheeler PC, Godsiff SP, Hignett SM, Fong DTP (2020). The STAK tool: evaluation of a new device to treat arthrofibrosis and poor range of movement following total knee arthroplasty and major knee surgery. Bone and Joint Open, 1(8), 465-473.
Delayed ankle muscle reaction after 15 minutes of football
[25 Jul 20] We found delayed ankle muscle reaction time after the first 15 minutes in female footballers.
Fong DTP, Leung WC, Mok KM, Yung PSH* (2020). Delayed ankle muscle reaction time in female amateur footballers after the first 15 minutes of a simulated prolonged football protocol. Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, 7, 54.
Recommendations for statistical analysis
[16 Jul 20] The editors of the Sports Biomechanics Journal have published the recommendations for statistical analysis involving null hypothesis significance testing.
Harrison AJ, McErlain-Naylor SA, Bradshaw EJ, Dai B, Nunome H, Hughes GTG, Kong PW, Vanwanseele B, Vilas-Boas JP, Fong DTP* (2020). Recommendations for statistical analysis involving null hypothesis significance testing. Sports Biomechanics, 19(5), 561-568.
Using top-view photo to measure hallux valgus
[16 Apr 20] We have developed a method to use top-view photograph to screen and monitor hallux valgus.
Fong DTP, Heng MLW, Pan JW, Lim YY, Lee PY, Kong PW* (2021). A clinician-free method utilising top-view photograph for screening and monitoring hallux valgus. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 111(5), 8.
A smart sock for measuring toe grip
[28 Jan 20] We have developed a smart sock system for measuring the grip function of each individual toe simultaneously.
Leow Y, Heng MLW, Liu Y, Fong DTP, Chan CC, Kong PW* (2020). Validity of a FBG-based smart sock system for measuring toe grip function in human foot. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 20(3), 2050015.
A rapid tool for estimating muscle volume
[25 Oct 19] We have developed a safe, rapid and accessible method to estimate muscle volume of key lower limb muscle groups.
Rothwell DT*, Fong DTP, Stapley S, Williams D (2019). A clinical applicable tool for rapidly estimating muscle volume using ultrasound images. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 119(11-12), 2685-2699.
Using optical fibre to measure toe stiffness
[10 Oct 19] We have developed a new instrument using Fiber Bragg grating sensors and load call to quantify the first metatarsalphalangeal joint quasi-stiffness in clinical setting.
Kong PW, Chan CC, Heng MLW, Liu Y, Leow Y, Fong DTP (2020). Fiber Bragg grating sensors for clinical measurement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint quasi-stiffness. IEEE Sensors Journal, 20(3), 1322-1328.
Fitting shoes for diabetic foot ulcer patients
[22 May 19] We have reviewed the shoe fit guidelines and suggested that future research should focus on 3D scanning, biomechanics evaluation of fit, and the need of shoe to fit the dynamic foot shape.
Jones PJ*, Bibb RJ, Davies MJ, Khunti K, McCarthy M, Fong DTP, Webb D (2019). A fitting problem: standardising shoe fit standards to reduce related diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 154, 66-74.
Knee valgus alignment is a plausible risk factor for patellar tendinopathy
[4 Feb 19] We have compared the squat biomechanics of participants with and without patellar tendinopathy and found significant difference in some parameters. We believe that knee valgus aligment could be a risk factor for patellar tendinopathy, and suggested some exercise for progressive loading rehabilitation.
Barker-Davies RM*, Roberts A, Watson J, Baker P, Bennett A, Lewis M, Wheeler P, Fong DTP (2019). Kinematic and kinetic differences between military patients with patellar tendinopathy and asymptomatic controls during single leg squats. Clinical Biomechanics, 62, 127-135.
A knee rotational laxity meter
[6 Dec 18] We have developed a non-invasive biomechanical device to measure knee rotational laxity. It can be used to evaluate surgical outcome for knee surgeries, especially anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction which aims to restore rotational stability of the knee.
Lee JCY, Yung PSH*, Lam MH, Hung ASL, Fong DTP, Chan WY, Chan KM (2019). A non-invasive biomechanical device to quantify knee rotational laxity: verification of the device in human cadaveric specimens. Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology, 16, 19-23.
IAC Consensus: clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries
[2 Oct 18] The International Ankle Consortium has published a consensus article for the developed Rehabilitation-Orientated ASessmenT (ROAST) protocol [Click here for the infographic]. This will help clinicians to identify mechanical and/or sensorimotor impairments associated with chronic ankle instability.
Delahunt E, Bleakley C, Bossard DS, Caulfield BM, Docherty C, Doherty C, Fourchet F, Fong DTP, Hertel J, Hiller CE, Kaminski TW, McKeon PO, Refshauge KM, Remus A, Verhagen EA, Vicenzino BT, Wilstrom EA, Gribble PA*, (2018). Clinical assessment of acute lateral ankle sprain injuries (ROAST): 2019 consensus statement and recommendations of the International Ankle Consortium. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(20), 1304-1310.
Kinematics of a televised medial ankle sprain
[26 Feb 18] We investigated a medial ankle sprain case in American Football. There was an eversion to 50 degrees happening within 0.2s after ground contact, with the maximum eversion velocity reaching 426 deg/s. The mechanism is combined with dorsiflexion.
Single leg squat can predict excessive hip internal rotation
[21 Feb 18] Single leg squats assessed in biomechanics laboratory is useful but impractical for routine clinical use. We demonstrated that while the validity of the clinical ratings with most kinematics data is low, the clinical ratings are good in estimating some kinetics data like hip internal rotation moment.
Barker-Davies RM*, Roberts A, Bennett A, Fong DTP, Wheeler P, Lewis M (2018). Single leg squat ratings by clinicians are reliable and predict excessive hip internal rotation moment. Gait and Posture, 61, 453-458.
Assessing tendinopathy with ultrasound
[7 Feb 18] Treatment to some tendinopathy depends on the identification of neuvascularisation in the tendon. We reported that sports and exercise medicine are good in diagnosing this with excellent reliability.
Watson J, Barker-Davies RM*, Bennett A, Fong DTP, Wheeler P, Lewis M, Ranson C (2018). Sport and Exercise Medicine consultants are reliable in assessing neovascularity using ultrasound Doppler. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 4(1), e000298.
Construction of community sports facility: UK and China
[1 Sep 17] The construction of urban community sports public service is not only an important part of urban community
public service management, but also an important content of building the national fitness public service system.
In this paper, we analysed such between China and UK.
Sun G, Fong DTP*, Liu Y (2017). The comparison between China and UK of the construction of city community sports service system in the scope of eco-civilization. Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería, 32(9), 500-506.
When, how and why ankle ligament failure occurs
[25 May 17] We have investigated four ankle inversion sprain incidents in basketball with forensic motion analysis for the movement and geometric analysis for the ligament strains. We found that ankle sprain with an internal rotation mechanism may contribute to injury to the anterior talofibular ligament.
Panagiotakis E, Mok KM, Fong DTP, Bull AMJ* (2017). Biomechanical analysis of ankle ligamentous sprain injury cases from televised basketball games: understanding when, how and why ligament failure occurs. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(12), 1057-1061.
High volume injection to treat tendinopathy
[22 May 17] Chronic tendinopathy is a problem in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. We have published a study protocol which we are now running to investigate the effect of High Volume Image Guided Injection to treat tendinopathy, and we will do it among the military population in the UK.
Barker-Davies RM, Nicol A, McCurdie I, Watson J, Baker P, Wheeler P, Fong DTP, Lewis M, Bennett A* (2017). Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 18, 204.
Investigating and prevention ankle sprain
[29 Jul 16] In this book ‘Sports Innovation, Technology and Research’ authored by colleagues in Imperial College London, I shared with the readers my work in the investigation and prevention of ankle sprain injury in sports.
Physical fitness of Hong Kong footballers
[10 Jun 16] The purpose of this study was to investigate the power and endurance characteristics of Hong Kong professional football players. Results suggested that Hong Kong players are inferior in some physical characteristics compared to players in European countries.
Evidence review for the International Ankle Consortium consensus statement
[3 Jun 16] Lateral ankle sprains (LASs) are the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in physically active populations and pose a substantial healthcare burden. This chronicity is associated with decreased physical activity levels and quality of life. This literature review introduces emerging areas that should be prioritised for continued research.
Gribble PA*, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fong DTP, Fourchet F, Hertel J, Hiller C, Kaminski T, McKeon P, Refshauge K, Verhagen E, Vicenzino B, Wilstrom E, Delahunt E (2016). Evidence review for the 2016 International Ankle Consortium consensus statement on the prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(24), 1496-1505.
Consensus statement of the International Ankle Consortium
[3 Jun 16] The Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium presents this 2016 position paper with recommendations for information implementation and continued research based on the paradigm that lateral ankle sprain (LAS) and the development of chronic ankle instability (CAI).
Gribble PA*, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fong DTP, Fourchet F, Hertel J, Hiller C, Kaminski T, McKeon P, Refshauge K, Verhagen E, Vicenzino B, Wilstrom E, Delahunt E (2016). Consensus statement of the International Ankle Consortium: prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(24), 1493-1495.
Ankle sprain simulators for mimicking the injury in laboratory
[21 Oct 15] This article reviewed the simulators, including tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices, which were designed for mimicking ankle sprain injury in laboratories over the years.
Ha SCW, Fong DTP, Chan KM* (2015). Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory. Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology, 2, 114-121.
Knee joint muscle properties in young athletes
[20 Mar 15] This study revealed that females demonstrated less peak torque at the knee joint, relaxed muscle stiffness, contracted muscle stiffness, and contracted musculoartcular stiffness than males. This may help explain the higher knee joint injury incidence in females.
Wang D, De Vito G, Ditroilo M, Fong DTP, Delahunt E* (2015). A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 25(3), 495-500.
Selection criteria for chronic ankle instability patients – JAT
[1 Feb 14] Dr Daniel Fong has published a series of position statement articles with a group of experts researching in sport-related ankle injury and chronic ankle instability. This one is in JAT.
Gribble PA*, Delahunt E, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fourchet F, Fong DTP, Hertel J, Hiller C, Kaminski T, McKeon P, Refshauge K, van der Wees P, Vicenzino B, Wikstrom E (2014). Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(1), 121-127.
Selection criteria for chronic ankle instability patients – BJSM
[19 Nov 13] Dr Daniel Fong has published a series of position statement articles with a group of experts researching in sport-related ankle injury and chronic ankle instability. This one is in BJSM.
Gribble PA*, Delahunt E, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fourchet F, Fong DTP, Hertel J, Hiller C, Kaminski T, McKeon P, Refshauge K, van der Wees P, Vicenzino B, Wikstrom E (2014). Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(13): 1014-1018.
Selection criteria for chronic ankle instability patients – JOSPT
[13 Aug 13] Dr Daniel Fong has published a series of position statement articles with a group of experts researching in sport-related ankle injury and chronic ankle instability. This one is in JOSPT.
Gribble PA*, Delahunt E, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fourchet F, Fong DTP, Hertel J, Hiller C, Kaminski T, McKeon P, Refshauge K, van der Wees P, Vicenzino B, Wikstrom E (2013). Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 43(8), 585-591.
Animal model for studying hip joint collapse
[21 Oct 13] We have established the use of bipedal emus as an animal model for studying hip joint collapse and subsequent orthopaedic treatments..
Zheng LZ, Liu Z, Lei M, Peng J, Xie XH, Man CW, Huang L, Wang XL, Fong DTP, Xiao DM, Wang DP, Chen Y, Feng JQ, Liu Y, Zhang G, Qin L* (2013). Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus. PLoS One, 8(10), e76797.
Greater knee external rotation in unplanned stop-jump
[2 Jul 13] We tested the knee stability of athletes during unanticipated stop-jumps in our laboratory, and found greater knee external rotation in some directions.
Inversion and internal rotation moment injured the ATFL
[3 Apr 13] We conducted a computational simulation study and found a combined 23Nm inversion moment and 11Nm internal rotation moment had caused a strain of 15-20% and a grade I ligamentous sprain injury at the anterior talofibular ligament during a case report we published in 2009.
Wei F, Fong DTP*, Chan KM, Haut R (2015). Estimation of ligament strains and joint moments in the ankle during a supination sprain injury. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 18(3), 243-248.
A more effective method to prevent ankle sprain
[1 Mar 13] We further developed our method to stimulate the peroneal muscle for ankle sprain prevention, and found that a stimulation delivered by electrodes of muscle belly size at the upper shank is the most effective.
Fong DTP*, Wang D, Chu VWS, Chan KM (2013). Myoelectric stimulation on peroneal muscles with electrodes of the muscle belly size attached to the upper shank gives the best effect in resisting simulated ankle sprain motion. Journal of Biomechanics, 46(6), 1088-1091.
A chapter in The Science of Footwear
[31 Dec 12] Daniel Fong has authored an article in this new book about the science of footwear. In his article, he discussed the problem of sport-related ankle ligamentous sprain injury, the etiology and mechanism of the injury, and the design of an anti-sprain sport shoe for its prevention.
Fong DTP, Mok KM, Chan KM (2012). Footwear for preventing acute sport-related ankle ligamentous sprain injury. In RS Goonetilleke (Ed.), The Science of Footwear (pp. 577-593). CRC Press, Taylor and Francis.
Video analysis and computational simulation to study ankle sprain injury mechanism
[1 Oct 12] Daniel Fong and Feng Wei published an article to elaborate the use of model matching video analysis and computational simulation to study ankle sprain injury mechanism.
Ankle sprain kinematics in tennis
[12 Sep 12] We reported five accidental ankle inversion sprain cases during televised tennis competitions. Results suggested that internal rotation at the ankle joint could be one of the causes, with a slightly inverted ankle joint orientation at landing as the inciting event.
Fong DTP*, Ha SCW, Mok KM, Chan CWL, Chan KM (2012). Kinematics analysis of ankle inversion ligamentous sprain injuries in sports – five cases from televised tennis competitions. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(11), 2627-2632.
Rocker sole shoe with orthoses could treat plantar fasciitis
[6 Sep 12] We have presented a study which suggested that combined prescription of rocker sole shoes and custom-made foot orthoses had greater immediate therapeutic effects compared to when each treatment had been individually prescribed for treating plantar fasciitis.
Fong DTP*, Pang KY, Chung MML, Hung ASL, Chan KM (2012). Evaluation of combined prescription of rocker sole shoes and custom-made foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Clinical Biomechanics, 27(10), 1072-1077.
Prolonged Boccia may cause upper trapezius fatigue
[21 Jul 12] We have studied the effect of prolonged Boccia game on upper limb muscle fatigue. Lowered ball speed and and target hitting rate were also observed.
Peroneal muscle stimulation could stop ankle sprain
[30 May 12] We presented a method to stimulate peroneal muscle contraction to prevent ankle inversion trauma. The method works when it is delivered within 15ms when an ankle sprain starts to occur.
A mechanical jig for measuring ankle joint torque
[1 Apr 12] We presented a mechanical jig which allows measurement of ankle supination and pronation torque with one simple axis in a single step motion, and for studying ankle sprain injury and the estimation of pronation torque for examining peroneal muscle response.
Gait and biomechanics after minimal invasive and open repair of Achilles tendon
[21 Dec 11] We compared the clinical and biomechanical outcome of minimal invasive repair of Achilles tendon, and found no significant different in some selected gait and biomechanics parameters.
Chan APH, Chan YY, Fong DTP*, Wong PYK, Lam HY, Lo CK, Yung PSH, Fung KY, Chan KM (2011). Clinical and biomechanical outcome following surgery for Achilles tendon rupture: comparison of minimally invasive repair with open repair. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology, 3, 32.
Symmetric backpack with a load with 20% bodyweight is acceptable to children in stair walking
[24 Nov 11] We published an article in Ergnomics and reported the effect of school bag design and load on spinal posture during stair walking in children.
Cycling, swimming and running for health
[1 Oct 11] We have published three Chinese books on sports medicine and health benefits in cycling, swimming and running sports.
Biomechanical techniques to evaluate tibial rotation
[23 Sep 11] We have systematically reviewed the biomechanical techniques to quantify tibial rotation, for an overview of how to choose a suitable technique for specific clinical application.
Ankle sprain case analysis in 2008 Beijing Olympics
[4 Jul 11] We have utilised the Model-Based Image-Matching motion analysis technique and published a report on 2 ankle sprain cases during 2008 Beijing Olympics in The American Journal of Sports Medicine.
Mok KM, Fong DTP*, Krosshaug T, Hung ASL, Engebretsen L, Yung PSH, Chan KM (2011). Kinematics analysis of ankle inversion ligamentous sprain injuries in sports – 2 cases during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(7), 1548-1552.
An ankle motion analysis method for un-calibrated video sequence
[30 May 11] We have established a technique to study ankle kinematics from un-calibrated video sequence, and we have published the details in Gait and Posture journal.
Double bundle ACL reconstruction restores knee stability
[16 May 11] We have presented the effect of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in restoring knee joint stability during a series of dynamic pivoting movement tests in our laboratory.
Lam MH, Fong DTP*, Yung PSH, Ho EPY, Fung KY, Chan KM (2011). Knee rotational stability during pivoting movement is restored after anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(5), 1032-1038.
Backpack loads should not exceed 15% body weight for walking up to 20 minutes
[1 Mar 11] Daniel Fong authored an article to discuss the effect of prolonged walking with different types of school bags filled with different loads on the muscle fatigue of trunk and shoulder muscles.
Hong Y, Fong DTP, Li JX (2010). Effect of prolonged walking with backpack loads on trunk muscular adaptation in children. In Y Hong (Ed.), Load carriage in school children: epidemiology and exercise science (pp. 171-181). Nova Publishers.
Posterolateral corner reconstruction at the knee joint
[29 Dec 10] We have conducted a cadaver biomechanics test and revealed that posterolateral corner reconstruction at the knee joint by a double-femoral tunnel technique achieves better rotational control and resistance to posterior translation than by a single-femoral tunnel technique.
Ho EPY, Lam MH, Chung MML, Fong DTP*, Law BKY, Yung PSH, Chan WY, Chan KM (2011). Comparison of 2 surgical techniques for reconstructing posterolateral corner of the knee – a cadaveric study evaluated by navigation system. Arthroscopy, 27(1), 89-96.
Wearable motion sensors for human biomechanics studies
[16 Dec 10] We have published a systematic review in Sensors Journal. We presented the use of small-size and low-cost accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors which are readily available nowadays.
Ankle inversion velocity for identifying ankle sprain risk
[1 Jul 10] We have conducted a series of laboratory test on common sporting motion. By comparing the ankle inversion velocity, we suggested that an ankle inversion velocity of 300 deg/s would be a threshold for ankle sprain risk identification.
Chu VWS, Fong DTP*, Chan YY, Yung PSH, Fung KY, Chan KM (2010). Differentiation of ankle sprain motion and common sporting motion by ankle inversion velocity. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(10), 2035-2038.
A single motion sensor for ankle sprain identification
[1 Jul 10] We have developed a method to utilise a single motion sensor to identify an ankle sprain motion. The accuracy is 91.3%, and is ready for real time detection of ankle sprain hazard in a sport shoe.
Chan YY, Fong DTP*, Chung MML, Li WJ, Liao WH, Yung PSH, Chan KM (2010). Identification of ankle sprain motion from common sporting activities by dorsal foot kinematics data. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(10), 1965-1969.
Knee kinematics assessment after ACL injury
[4 Mar 10] We authored an article in a Chinese sports medicine textbook “Practice of Arthroscopic Surgery”. The article highlights the importance to measure the knee joint biomechanics as to evaluate the surgical outcome with quantity.
Lam MH, Ho EPY, Law BKY, Chang JHT, Chan KM, Yung PSH, Fong DTP (2009). Knee kinematics assessment after anterior cruciate ligament injury. In KM Chan et al (Ed.), Practice of Arthroscopic Surgery (pp. 824-829). China: People’s Medical Publishing House.
Clinical and biomechanical assessment of knee stability
[15 Sep 09] We have published a paper reviewing the clinical and biomechanical approaches to assess knee joint stability, which would be useful for diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Lam MH, Fong DTP*, Yung PSH, Ho EPY, Chan WY, Chan KM (2009). Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: clinical and biomechanical approaches. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology, 1, 20.
Hong Kong children perform well in basic motor skills
[4 Sep 09] We have investigated the fundamental motor skill proficiency of Hong Kong children ages 6 – 9, and found that the participants were superior to the children investigated in United States, Brazil, and Australia.
Human walks carefully when the ground goes slippery
[31 Aug 09] When a floor goes slippery, human could sense and adapt by using less propagation force from the ground. This study revealed its biomechanics and suggested the limit for human to start the adaptation.
Learn more about acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury
[30 Jul 09] Ankle sprain is the most common acute sport trauma. To learn more about it, please read our recent paper to catch up with the previous researches on ankle sprain injury.
How does ankle sprain injury occur?
[2 Apr 09] Ankle sprain is the most common injury in sports, but the mechanism of injury is not clear. This study presented an accidental supination ankle sprain injury that occurred in a laboratory under a high-speed video and plantar pressure capturing setting.
Fong DTP, Hong Y*, Shima Y, Krosshaug T, Yung PSH, Chan KM (2009). Biomechanics of supination ankle sprain – a case report of an accidental injury event in laboratory. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(4), 822-827.
Rat race for quantifying functional recovery
[1 Apr 09] Gait analysis has been developed to monitor the inflammatory pain in small animals. We reported the use of motion analysis to monitor gait changes in a rat model of degenerative tendon injury.
Fu SC, Chan KM*, Chan LS, Fong DTP, Lui PPY (2009). The use of motion analysis to measure pain-related behaviour in a rat model of degenerative tendon injuries. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 179(2), 309-318.
Learn how to contribute to sports medicine as a biomechanist, again
[1 Feb 09] Our current concept paper “Orthopaedic sport biomechanics – a new paradigm” in Clinical Biomechanics is re-published in Chinese language in Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics.
Keep your leg stiff while walking on slippery surfaces
[2 Dec 08] This study investigated the lower extremity preventive measures for slips. Results showed that strategies included significant increased muscle activity of gastrocnemius in the swing phase, and in rectus femoris in the late stance phase.
Arthroscopic repair is good for solving shoulder problem
[1 Dec 08] We evaluated the effectiveness of arthroscopic repair of type II superior labrum anterior-posterior lesion (SLAP). The clinical and functional outcomes suggested that arthroscopic repair is an effective operation.
Yung PSH, Fong DTP, Kong MF, Lo CK, Fung KY, Ho EPY, Chan DKC, Chan KM* (2008). Arthroscopic repair of isolated type II superior labrum anterior-posterior lesion. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy, 16(12), 1151-1157.
School bag should not exceed 15% body weight
[30 Oct 08] This study investigated the effect of prolonged walking with load on muscle fatigue. Backpack for children should be restricted to 15% body weight for walks of up to 20 min duration to avoid muscle fatigue.
How do biomechanists contribute in sports medicine?
[21 Oct 08] This article proposes a new paradigm, “Orthopaedic sport biomechanics”. Orthopaedics and biomechanics specialists are encouraged to understand what they could contribute to the current and future practice of sports medicine.
Ankle sprain still the major sports trauma in Hong Kong
[10 Oct 08] In Hong Kong, major and serious ankle ligamentous sprains and fractures were sustained from basketball, soccer and hiking, leading to A&E attendance, while minor sprains were sustained in running and jogging and racquet sports.
In-shoe ankle twisting monitor invented
[10 Jul 08] This study presented a three-pressure-sensor (3PS) system for monitoring ankle supination torque during sport motions. It is readily available to be implanted in sport shoe for the estimation and monitoring of ankle supination torque during dynamic sport motions.
Fong DTP, Chan YY, Hong Y, Yung PSH, Fung KY, Chan KM* (2008). A three-pressure-sensor (3PS) system for monitoring ankle supination torque during sport motions. Journal of Biomechanics, 41(11), 2562-2566.
A device to simulate ankle sprain injury
[9 Jul 08] This study presents a free-fall mechanical supination sprain simulator for evaluating the ankle joint kinematics during a simulated ankle supination sprain injury. it allows a more comprehensive study of the kinematics of ankle sprain.
Pressure insoles could measure ground shear forces
[20 Jun 08] This study presented a method to estimate the complete ground reaction forces from pressure insoles in walking, which gives an extra option to measure the ground reaction forces in any environment without the constraints from the number and location of force plates.
Inserts may help correcting flat feet
[20 Feb 08] This study investigated the effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion. Results showed that the inserts were effective in dynamics trials but not static trials.
Fong DTP, Lam MH, Lao MLM, Chan CWN, Yung PSH, Fung KY, Lui PPY, Chan KM* (2008). Effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion: a biomechanics study. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 3, 7.
Grip the ground with your toe to prevent slips!
[2 Feb 08] This study investigated the plantar pressure distribution during gait on wooden surface with different slipperiness in the presence of contaminants, and revealed that human could walk without slip on slippery surfaces with greater toe grip and gentler heel strike as adaptation strategies.
Cloth sport shoe may not be good for children
[1 Sep 07] This study evaluated the protective functions of cloth sport shoes, including cushioning and lateral stability. The cloth sport shoe showed inferior cushioning capability but the same lateral stability as the other sports shoes for children.
Injury pattern of Hong Kong badminton players
[1 Apr 07] In Hong Kong elite badminton players, a total of 253 injuries (128 recurrent and 125 new injuries) were recorded in year 2003, which accounted for an overall incidence rate of 5.04 per 1,000 player hours.
Ankle sprain the most common injury in sport
[1 Jan 07] This article systematically reviews epidemiological studies on sports injury from 1977 to 2005. The ankle was the second most common injured body site after the knee, and ankle sprain was the most common type of ankle injury.
A stiff ankle joint helps preventing slips
[1 Mar 05] In walking on slippery surfaces without slips, ankle joint adapts by reducing range of motion, maintaining a stiff joint, and achieving flatfoot landing with a plantarflexed ankle joint during the first 10% stance.